Since their creation, solar panels have become more effective thanks to study in this area. The development of solar energy as we know it now began before the first silicon photovoltaic cells were invented in 1954 by a number of scientists. The effectiveness of solar panels rose as research expanded. Right now, the solar cells in use can supply all of the electricity needed for houses and businesses. Let’s jump into its manufacturing!
Solar Panel Raw Material
Pure silicon is the first essential ingredient needed to create solar cells. But silicon isn’t perfect in its raw form. It is produced in a furnace at extremely high temperatures using quartz sand. Pure silicon is primarily made of natural beach sand. Although silicon is a plentiful resource in the world, acquiring pure silicon is expensive and energy-intensive.
The Manufacturing Process
Purifying the silicon from quartz sand is the initial step in Solar Panel Manufacturing. After being refined, silicon is gathered and formed into rocks. Then, these rocks are melted together to produce cylinder-shaped ingots. It takes a steel and cylindrical furnace to form the object into the appropriate form. All atoms must align in the proper orientation and structure when manufacturing is taking place. One silicon crystal is all that is needed by the manufacturer to create monocrystalline cells. The producers of polycrystalline cells combine multiple silicon crystals in a melting process. The different silicon crystals in these panels give them the impression of shattered glass. The produced ingot is polished and shined to provide flat sides after cooling.
The Wafer Making
The cylindrical ingot is finely split into thin discs to create wafers. One at a time, using a cylindrical saw, is done. A multi wire saw can be used by manufacturers to cut numerous pieces at once. Shiny thin silicon reflects light because it is shiny. The discs are given a thin anti-reflective coating to lessen the quantity of sunlight lost. This coating material can either undergo spattering or heating to the point where the molecules boil. Solar Manufacturers utilize a high voltage during the sputtering process to identify the molecules of the materials before depositing them on silicon.
The Wafer making follows these steps as well:
Making Solar Cells
Each wafer receives treatment, and metal conductors are added to the surface. The additional conductors cause a surface look that resembles a grid. They guarantee the conversion of sunlight into power. The silicon wafers’ covering lessens sunlight reflection, increasing production. The manufacturer’s phosphorus is applied to the surface of the wafers in oven-like chambers in a thin layer. The wafers are charged negatively electrically by the phosphorus.
Solar Cells to Solar Panels
Solar panels with 48 cells are perfect for small residential rooftops. The typical size is 60-cell panels.Large-scale installations are suitable for 72-cell panels. Thin glass casing is attached to the side that faces the sun after the Solar Cells have been assembled by the manufacturers. The back layer is made of a highly resilient polymer-based substance as well. This stops substances like water, soil, and other things from reaching the solar cells.
Solar Panel Testing
Testing is done once the production of the solar module is complete to make sure it performs as planned. STC (Standard Test Conditions) are typically applied. The solar panel model is now cleaned and examined after testing, and it is distributed to households.
The efficiency of solar panels keeps rising. The market for solar manufacturing is anticipated to expand as more homeowners and business owners choose renewable energy. There is hope that as research and development proceed, solar manufacturing costs will continue to drop.
Meta Description
This blog post will give you a detailed insight about Solar Panel Manufacturing. How the Wafers, Solar Cells and then finally Solar Panels are made!